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What is the use of 77 level in COBOL?

FAQs william October 30, 2022

Level 77 is a special level number in COBOL used to declare independent data members; they are not subdivisions of other data items and are not themselves subdivided. There used to be differences in the storage and processing of level 77 and level 01 elementary data elements.

What are the uses of 66 77 and 88 levels?

01. This level number identifies the record itself and is the broadest possible level number. A Level 01 entry can be either an alphanumeric group entry, a national group entry, or an elementary entry.

What is level number?

The level number indicates the data hierarchy within a data set and identifies data entries for special purposes. A level number begins with a data description entry, a renamed or redefined element, or a condition name entry.

Can we declare occurs in 01 level?

The table element definition (which contains the OCCURS clause) is subordinate to the group element that contains the table. The OCCURS clause must not appear in a level 01 description.

What is the difference between renames and redefines in COBOL?

REDEFINES VS RENAMES:

The RENAMES clause is used to regroup elementary data items and give them a name. The REDEFINES clause allows you to add different data description entries use the same memory area.

What is PIC S9 in COBOL?

PIC 9 for numbers, optionally with S (sign) or V (implicit decimal point). For example, PIC S9(7)V99 means a signed number with 7 digits to the left of the implied decimal point and 2 digits to the right.

What is PIC Z in COBOL?

The z in the PICTURE clause of edited-price indicates leading zero suppression. You can define numeric edited data elements to contain national (UTF-16) characters instead of alphanumeric characters. To do this, define the numeric edited elements as USAGE NATIONAL .

What is the difference between comp and COMP3 in COBOL?

The z in the PICTURE clause of edited-price indicates leading zero suppression. You can define numeric edited data elements to contain national (UTF-16) characters instead of alphanumeric characters. To do this, define the numeric edited elements as USAGE NATIONAL .

What is PIC 99 COBOL?

This field would be set up with the following image: PIC 999V99. The V in the IMAGE indicates that the computer assumes there is a decimal point at that point when processing it. Therefore, the number stored in the IMAGE above would be processed as three integers followed by two decimals.

How many ways we can pass data from JCL to COBOL?

In how many ways can you share data. From JCL we can pass data to the COBOL program in two ways. One goes through PARM (maximum limit is 100 bytes), the second through the input file, the third through the SYSIN card.

What is string and Unstring in COBOL?

Unstring verb is used to split a string into multiple substrings. The Delimited By clause is mandatory. Syntax. Following is the syntax of the unstring verb − UNSTRING ws-string DELIMITED BY SPACE INTO ws-str1, ws-str2 WITH POINTER ws-count ON OVERFLOW DISPLAY message NOT ON OVERFLOW DISPLAY message END-UNSTRING.

What is 66 level used for in COBOL?

Renames clause is used to give existing data items different names. It is used to regroup the data names and give them a new name. The new data names can be renamed across groups or elementary elements. Level number 66 is reserved for renaming.

What is level 49 in COBOL?

49 is used to declare variable-length elementary identifiers – typically VARCHAR, LONG VARCHAR, VARGRAPHIC, and LONG VARGRAPHIC variables. When level 49 is used, the group contains a 2-byte length field followed by the actual field name (defined as PIC X(##), where ## is the maximum length).

What is FD in mainframe?

FD is a file description level indicator that declares file properties. SD is the “Sort File Description Level Indicator” representing the file specified as the sort file.

Why occurs Cannot be used in 01 level?

Why can’t the occurrence clause be declared at level 01? According to the manual, a table is defined within a group element with an occurrence clause. If the occurrence clause were declared at level 01, there would be no group element so no start of table explosion.

Can we initialize array in COBOL?

Initializing an array in the DATA division

The VALUE clause is used to initialize a data item in WORKING-STORAGE, but COBOL-74 allows its use in a definition containing a OCCURS, not clause. A data item with a VALUE clause must be defined and the space it occupies, then REDEFINED as an array: 01 MONTHNAMES.

Are multiple 01 levels supported in file section?

Multiple 01 levels on input all get the data. They can be of different lengths, that’s one way of defining variable length files. On output, the written 01 defines the length of the output record.

Can we redefine 77 level item is it possible?

Level number 66 and 88 cannot be used for redefinitions in COBOL because level numbers 66 and 88 must not be redefined. The most common level numbers to use a REDEFINES clause are 01 through 49, but level number 77 can also be used. Obviously, you MUST NOT code the VALUE clause with a redefining element.

References:

  1. https://www.mainframebug.com/tuts/COBOL/module5/Top16_COBOL_LEVEL_77.php
  2. https://www.ibm.com/docs/SS6SG3_4.2.0/com.ibm.entcobol.doc_4.2/PGandLR/ref/rldadldr.htm
  3. https://www.mainframestechhelp.com/tutorials/cobol/level-numbers.htm
  4. https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/developer-for-zos/9.5.1?topic=entry-level-numbers
  5. https://www.ibm.com/docs/en/cobol-zos/4.2?topic=tables-defining-table-occurs
  6. https://www.techagilist.com/mainframe/cobol/redefines-vs-renames/
  7. https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2996278/cobol-data-types
  8. https://www.ibm.com/docs/SS6SG3_6.3.0/pg/tasks/tpari06.html
  9. https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/difference-between-comp-and-comp3/
  10. http://www.pgrocer.net/Cis12/cobol3.html
  11. https://srinimf.com/2015/02/17/passing-data-from-jcl-to-cobol/
  12. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/cobol/cobol_string_handling.htm
  13. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/cobol/cobol_data_layout.htm
  14. https://knowledge.broadcom.com/external/article/24272/cobol-data-level-49-and-ca-datacom-sql-p.html
  15. https://www.mainframestechhelp.com/tutorials/cobol/file-section.htm
  16. http://www.mainframegurukul.com/ibmmainframeforums/viewtopic.php?t=5216
  17. http://www.techtricky.com/cobol-arrays-or-tables/
  18. https://ibmmainframes.com/about16451.html
  19. https://www.tutorialbrain.com/mainframe/cobol-redefines/

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